-Phosphorus is an essential mineral primarily used for growth and repair of body cells and tissues. Phosphorus is involved in the release of energy from fat, protein, and carbohydrates during metabolism, and in the formation of DNA and many enzymes.

-Normally the body produces acid and alkalis and this balance is critical. Phosphorus plays a major role in keeping this balance. Therefore, they together with calcium and phosphorus, provides structure and strength. Calcium and phosphorus are used for building bones and teeth, giving rigidity to the structures. Bone is continually being rebuilt with new bone being formed. Calcium circulates in the blood and appears in other body tissues where it helps blood to clot, muscles to contract (including the heart muscle) and nerves to transmit impulses. Calcium salts provide rigidity to the skeleton.

-Adults use average about 30% absorbtion of calcium, but during growth and pregnancy the additional calcium is needed but, about 60% Calcium is absorbed. Postmenopausal women, who are at high risk of developing osteoporosis, tend to absorb the least calcium.

-Without milk or milk products in a diet, it is difficult to get enough calcium. Other sources of calcium include salmon, sardines and several greens such as broccoli, turnip greens, spinach, beet greens, parsley.


-Sodium is a mineral that your body must have in order to function properly. Sodium works in concert with potassium to maintain normal water balance in the body. Sodium is needed for muscles to contract and nerve impulses to be transmitted.

-Closely related to sodium’s role in the maintenance of normal fluid levels is the part it plays in controlling your body’s blood volume and thus blood and thus blood pressure.

-Sodium also helps transport other minerals and substances into, and out of cells. Also the flow of sodium and potassium inside and outside cells creates and electrical gradient. This electrical activity is important for performing work and communication, especially for nerve and muscle tissue. For example, nerves use the flow of electrolytes to send signals, the beating of the heart is coordinated by the flow of electrolytes and muscles use it to signal for contraction. Table salt (sodium chloride) is the major source of sodium in diet. One teaspoon of salt contains 2 grams of sodium. In addition, baking powder and baking soda include sodium.


-Like vitamins, minerals can also be toxic at high doses. An increase in sodium concentration in the bloodstream can be toxic. Increases plasma sodium, which is called hypernatremia, causes the cells in various body tissues. Potassium is potentially quite toxic, however, potassium poisoning is usually prevented because of the vomiting reflex.

-The consumption of food result in mild increases in the concentration of potassium in the bloodstream, but these levels of potassium do not become toxic because of the uptake of potassium by various cells of the body as well as by the action of the kidneys transferring the potassium ions from the blood to the urine. Calcium and phosphate ; Calcium toxicity is rare, but overconsumption of calcium supplements may lead to deposit of calcium phosphate in the soft tissues of the body. Phosphate toxicity can result from the overuse of laxatives or enemas that contain phosphate. Iron toxicity is not unusual in small children , meaning that a child who accidentally eats more iron tablets may die as a result of iron poisoning.

-Unfortunately children eat large amounts of these iron pills because they look like candy. Zink toxicity is rare but it is more likely to occur in adults than children. Copper toxicity in humans is usually the result of disease. Manganese toxicity is most likely adults, it occurs most commonly in miner workers. The symptoms include a mental disorder, hallucinations, and difficulty in walking.



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-Water has many roles for the body, without food we can live for weeks. But without water, depending on the temperature, we would only last a few days. Nothing survives without water. The average adult’s body weight is generally 50%-60% water. Human blood is composed of 92 percent water, muscle and the brain about 75% and bone 22%. Water carries nutrients to the cells and carries away waste materials via the kidney.

-Water is needed in each step of the process of converting food into energy and tissue. Also water provides the medium for electrolytes to circulate throughout your body. Electrolytes are the minerals sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium. Water helps move food through your digestive tract and removes waste from every cell in your body. Water is also excreted as urine by the kidneys along with waste materials carried from the cells. Water helps regulate ph balance in your body and water helps temperature regulation in your body.

-Unfortunately, by the time you feel thirsty, you are already much in need of extra fluid, but this can be easily remedied by drinking promptly. It is therefore very important not to ignore feelings of thirst, a concern that is particularly appropriate for the elderly.

-The body loses 1.5 litres of water a day through the skin, lungs and gut and via the kidneys as urine, ensuring that toxic substances are eliminated from the body. We also make about a third of a litre of water per day when glucose is ‘burnt’ for energy. Therefore drink needs to be more than one litre a day.





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Hi everyone!

Some people try to do kind of diet time to time, and it feels like they are doing everything right, but still they are not seeing a good result. Before beginning diet, we should ask that question, What is Diet? If we learn the question’s answer, we make progress about losing weight. Here are some informations from my Nutrition lesson summary. Enjoy it!


Diet can refer to the food and drink a person consumes daily and the mental and physical circumtances connected to eat. This means eating a wide variety of foods in the right proportions, and consuming the right amount of food and drink to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. There is a difference between men and women with regards to where fat accumulates in the body.

We need a balanced diet which is important our body, because your organs and tissues need proper nutrition to work effectively. If we have poor nutrition, our body are more prone to disease, infection, fatigue and poor performance. Children with a poor diet run the risk of growth and develop mental problems and poor academic performance.

In addition rising level of obesity and diabetes in the world are prime examples of the effects of poor diet and a lack of exercise. Diet is often referred to as some dietary regimen for losing weight. A good diet is a nutritional lifestyle that promotes good healthy. A good diet must include several food groups because one single group cannot provide everything a human needs for good health. In fact you should not feel that you are on a diet at all.


The liver then converts the glycogen into glucose for use as blood glucose, in the early stages of a crash diet, the glycogen is taken from reserves of fat. The same process that breaks down fat also breaks down glycogen stored in the muscles and liver of the body. Each molecule of glycogen is linked to four times its weight in water so weight loss is no longer just fat, it is muscle tissue and water.

-DAILY FOR ABOUT 1500 CALORIES ; For example, When you eat carbohydrate, only a certain amount can be used or circulated in the bloodstream at any one time. What can’t be used immediately needs to be stored. The carbohydrate is broken down and converted to a substance called glycogen, ready to be stored in liver or the muscle cells to be used at a later date. A healthy adult store glycogen in the liver and in the muscle cells. If your glycogen levels drop, you can lose weight.


Crash dieting, skimpy meals and skipping meals may work in the short term but not in the long term run. The reason that these people have mostly lost is fluid and muscle tissue, not fat, unfortunately, the fluid is not just excess water, it contains much of the ‘instant energy’ that the body requires. The body does not understand the concept of dieting. This why; even though they are eating very little, people on crash diets find that their bodies do not easily shed the excess weight. Even more concerning is the fact that the lowering of the metabolism can continue beyond the dieting period. This result in the familiar yo-yo effect, where a dieter loses some weight, only to rebound to a higher weight then when they started.


If you crash dieting, Low carbohydrate levels also lead to depletion of your body’s sodium level, so the body sheds water to balance out the sodium loss. Sodium deficiency is particularly dangerous. These electrolytes are used by your body to ensure nerve and muscle function.



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Hello Everyone!

Today I want to share my lecture summary with you and  we should learn tips how can cope with stress, our body how can adapt to stress. My lecture topic is general adoption syndrome.



-General adaptation syndrome is a term used by Professor Hans Selye for describing the body’s short-term and long term reactions to stress and the general adaption syndrome involved two major systems of the body, the nervous system and the endocrine ( or hormonal). Also, learning what foods, exercise and hobbies are good for us. Things we like and make us feel enjoyable we tent to repeat, things that are not pleasant we tent to avoid. Professor Hans Selye first described in 1956 a process of various stages he called the General Adaption Syndrome, which can be applied to cigarette, a stress or a physical activity.

-The term can be analyzed such that: Stage 1: Initial Response: Your first response to any event or substance is the best indicator of whether or not it suits you, for example; do you remember your first cigarette, your first alcoholic drink or your first cup of coffee? Besides you are unlikely to remember your first taste of sugar, meat or milk or foods introduced when you were very young.

-Stage 2: Adaptation: Very quickly our body learn to adopt and this stage the body remains alert ( at a lower level) but continues the normal functions. During the resistance stage, the result of the hormonal changes which occurred in the previous stage are still apparent, including increase glucose levels in the blood and higher blood pressure, but stress hormone levels begin to return to normal, enabling the body’s focus to shift from alertness to repair. For example, Gone is the pounding heart after a cup of coffee, or coughing after a cigarette, the cell in the lungs of a smoker change form to protect themselves from smoke. The body is trying to protect itself, and in so doing is in an unseen state of stress.

-Stage 3: Exhaustion; The body no longer has the energy to cope with continued stress in the long term, Also continue the insult long enough and one day you are sick and your energy is gone , your digestive system is not functioning properly, your blood pressure is raised and for example, a person with stressful job may experience long-term stress that might lead to high blood pressure and eventual heart attack or you develop anything from chest infections to cancer. This is the stage at which most people seek help from a health practitioner.

-Stage 4: Recovery; Treatment usually focused on the management stress and other undesirable substances. This means being as very strict as possible for a period, during which you may have to wean yourself off all sorts of things to which you have become addicted or allergic. This is the nature of addiction and to help the body recover, much larger amounts of vitamins and minerals are needed than would normally be required just to maintain good health and also you can need to incorporating a healthy lifestyle , for example; exercise, balanced diet, rest and sleep, happy relationship, improvement of social skills, positive outlook.

-Stage 5: The fifty of the general adaption syndrome stages is hypersensitivity. Once you have recovered and your body is basically healthy, which can take years, you are effectively back to stage one.

-You may seem to be hypersensitive and react to all sort of things that you never reacted to before, they are usually referred to as an over reaction of the immune system and these reactions may be damaging or uncomfortable.



The lecture source is Stonebridge- Associated Collages-Diet and Nutrition Advisor.

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Clowns-Oxford street-London/UK

HI Everyone!

Some researches show that, Oxford Street is one of the most visited destinations in the world and the street is heart of London in UK. Obviously there are so many massive brands, independent boutiques, jumbo department stores lining the street. Also, you can see so many English language schools , Restaurants, Cafes and bars through on this street.

You could say, Oxford street has something for everyone, you can get what ever you need. In addition you can walk anywhere from Selfridges to Prime Mark, because all of the shops, stores are very close to each other and easy alternatives such as, Mark&Spencer, Zara, HM, John Levis, Debenham, Boots etc…

For instance, if you want to spend your a day on the same street as me, You should choose Oxford street in London, for the reason that you can be seeing new season fashion in the Selfridges and you can also drink something in there or when you need some fresh air you should take a walk on the street and you can listen to Street Orchestras, Buskers, who give joy to street.

In my opinion, the Street Musicians and Orchestras are very crucial to London. Because if London had not had the Orchestras, the Musicians and Tourist, the City would have been so boring and monotone place as well concerning London’s depressive weather condition.

Anyway to get back to the main subject behind the Street many Pubs and Restaurants are waiting for you. In the night either you can go to Theatre or Cinema on the Street, they are within walking distance from the Street. Another alternative is that, You can go to an English Language Course to improve your English skill if a language learning is significant thing for you.

To sum up, visiting the Street has many opportunity, such as shopping, eating, resting, listening street orchestra, learning language e.t.c…On the other hand, London plus Oxford street are so costly places, however it is worthy to see the city and the Street. When you visit London you should relish of the Street.


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Street Musician-Oxford street-London/UK


Street Musician-Oxford street-London/UK


Street Musician-Oxford street-London/UK


Street Musician-Oxford street-London/UK


Street Musician-Oxford street-London/UK


Street Musician-Oxford street-London/UK


Street Musician-Oxford street-London/UK


Robotic Bear-Oxford Street-London\UK


Oxford street-London/UK


Oxford street-London/UK


Oxford street-London/UK


Oxford street-London/UK


Oxford street-London/UK


Selfiridges-Oxford street-London/UK




Potato Rosti with cheese-mommy cook for me

Total time: 1 hour

Level: Easy

Serve: 4 to 6

Hi Everyone!

Rosti is a Swiss dish and it is made from potato also it can be described like a potato pancake. When I went to Switzerland I tried potato rosti and it was super delicious, therefore recently, I have made Swiss Potato Rosti for my family and my friends, I tried a different technique which made the rosti crisper on the outside, but did gentle interior and it was topped with cooked egg and served with salad, they were happy for trying Swiss potato rosti and it was very tasty. Therefore, I want to share my Rosti recipe with you. Enjoy it!

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Kaşıbeyaz Restaurant in Ankara-TURKEY

-Hi everybody!
If you are in Ankara-Turkey or visiting to Ankara and you are looking for a good traditional restaurant, it is worthy to visit. Kaşibeyaz Restaurant is well- known restaurant in Istanbul-Turkey and The restaurant was opened a new branch of Ankara about 2 years ago.

There was two reason I went to this restaurant. First reason is that, I wanted to try traditional food and to experience a local culture, they were pretty good.Second reason, It has an excellent location, because the restaurant located in the middle of the Ataturk Forest Botany and we have visited it recently, The restaurant has been decorated with a nice classic style also it has South Eastern Anatolia kitchen. We had a pleasant surprise in there they offered a full selection grilled meat and kofte, flat bread, salad, grilled peppers, tomato, even excellent sliced fruits! Yes, you read that right, and I tried all of the food on my table, in addition, grilled kofte was spicy also the meat was juicy, buttery, well-done and so good. Also, If you want to experience something than typical meze or kofta-meat, you can try ‘Mumbar Dolma’ the Dolma is made from cleaned sheep intestine,(cleaned sheep intestine is stuffed with ground meat, rice, herb, spices, butter and than stuffed intestine cooks in a saucepan).

In addition, the appetiser was simple but very enjoyable. Salad was made fresh herb with grape vinegar sauce, it was mouth-watering . Service was very friendly, if you don’t know speaking Turkish it doesn’t matter, because the menu has been prepared in English and Turkish. Also if you would like to choose a clean restaurant, I have to say that, the restaurant was clean. However, their dinner music choosing was not good, they should choose a relaxing music. They have a huge, good garden and a smoking lounge. Families prefer to go there in general and Some time, Business meetings do in there. But they don’t serve booze at  Kasibeyaz Restaurant in Ankara. They serve some treat,  such as; fruit, tea and coffee.

Finally, the restaurant was no crowded too much and the food was a bit costly at this restaurant. Nevertheless, We were happy to make the reservation and I have took some photo for you. I hope, you will enjoy!




Kaşıbeyaz Restaurant Adress in Ankara-TURKEY: Ataturk Orman Ciftligi, Emniyet Mahallesi, No:72, Yenimahalle, Ankara.