THE IMPORTANCE OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS TO THE BODY.
-Phosphorus is an essential mineral primarily used for growth and repair of body cells and tissues. Phosphorus is involved in the release of energy from fat, protein, and carbohydrates during metabolism, and in the formation of DNA and many enzymes.
-Normally the body produces acid and alkalis and this balance is critical. Phosphorus plays a major role in keeping this balance. Therefore, they together with calcium and phosphorus, provides structure and strength. Calcium and phosphorus are used for building bones and teeth, giving rigidity to the structures. Bone is continually being rebuilt with new bone being formed. Calcium circulates in the blood and appears in other body tissues where it helps blood to clot, muscles to contract (including the heart muscle) and nerves to transmit impulses. Calcium salts provide rigidity to the skeleton.
-Adults use average about 30% absorbtion of calcium, but during growth and pregnancy the additional calcium is needed but, about 60% Calcium is absorbed. Postmenopausal women, who are at high risk of developing osteoporosis, tend to absorb the least calcium.
-Without milk or milk products in a diet, it is difficult to get enough calcium. Other sources of calcium include salmon, sardines and several greens such as broccoli, turnip greens, spinach, beet greens, parsley.
– THE IMPORTANCE OF SODIUM TO THE BODY.-
-Sodium is a mineral that your body must have in order to function properly. Sodium works in concert with potassium to maintain normal water balance in the body. Sodium is needed for muscles to contract and nerve impulses to be transmitted.
-Closely related to sodium’s role in the maintenance of normal fluid levels is the part it plays in controlling your body’s blood volume and thus blood and thus blood pressure.
-Sodium also helps transport other minerals and substances into, and out of cells. Also the flow of sodium and potassium inside and outside cells creates and electrical gradient. This electrical activity is important for performing work and communication, especially for nerve and muscle tissue. For example, nerves use the flow of electrolytes to send signals, the beating of the heart is coordinated by the flow of electrolytes and muscles use it to signal for contraction. Table salt (sodium chloride) is the major source of sodium in diet. One teaspoon of salt contains 2 grams of sodium. In addition, baking powder and baking soda include sodium.
-ARE MINERALS TOXIC AT HIGH DOSES?-
-Like vitamins, minerals can also be toxic at high doses. An increase in sodium concentration in the bloodstream can be toxic. Increases plasma sodium, which is called hypernatremia, causes the cells in various body tissues. Potassium is potentially quite toxic, however, potassium poisoning is usually prevented because of the vomiting reflex.
-The consumption of food result in mild increases in the concentration of potassium in the bloodstream, but these levels of potassium do not become toxic because of the uptake of potassium by various cells of the body as well as by the action of the kidneys transferring the potassium ions from the blood to the urine. Calcium and phosphate ; Calcium toxicity is rare, but overconsumption of calcium supplements may lead to deposit of calcium phosphate in the soft tissues of the body. Phosphate toxicity can result from the overuse of laxatives or enemas that contain phosphate. Iron toxicity is not unusual in small children , meaning that a child who accidentally eats more iron tablets may die as a result of iron poisoning.
-Unfortunately children eat large amounts of these iron pills because they look like candy. Zink toxicity is rare but it is more likely to occur in adults than children. Copper toxicity in humans is usually the result of disease. Manganese toxicity is most likely adults, it occurs most commonly in miner workers. The symptoms include a mental disorder, hallucinations, and difficulty in walking.
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